July and August must be a period of intense preparation for our reasonable worst-case scenario for health in the winter that we set out in this report, including a resurgence of COVID-19, which might be greater than that seen in the spring. The assumptions that we have made should be tested as new evidence emerges (including analysis of the evidence from the first wave) to enable prevention and mitigation strategies to be adapted and refined. Mitigation strategies should not pose further disadvantage to the most vulnerable in society or the highest risk patients or communities. To maximise their effectiveness (and to ensure they do not exacerbate inequalities), preparations for winter must be informed by engagement with patients, carers, public and healthcare professionals (as we have benefitted from in this report); and, whenever possible, be developed through co-production. Implementation of prevention and mitigation strategies requires enhanced coordination, collaboration and data sharing between central and local initiatives.