01/11/2016 Medicine
DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000544 SemanticScholar ID: 22234868 MAG: 2503829108

Drinking Water Disinfection By-products, Genetic Polymorphisms, and Birth Outcomes in a European Mother–Child Cohort Study

Publication Summary

Background: We examined the association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes, the most common water disinfection by-products, and birth outcomes in a European cohort study (Health Impacts of Long-Term Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water). We took into account exposure through different water uses, measures of water toxicity, and genetic susceptibility. Methods: We enrolled 14,005 mothers (2002–2010) and their children from France, Greece, Lithuania, Spain, and the UK. Information on lifestyle- and water-related activities was recorded. We ascertained residential concentrations of trihalomethanes through regulatory records and ad hoc sampling campaigns and estimated route-specific trihalomethane uptake by trimester and for whole pregnancy. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants in disinfection by-product metabolizing genes in nested case–control studies. Results: Average levels of trihalomethanes ranged from around 10 &mgr;g/L to above the regulatory limits in the EU of 100 &mgr;g/L between centers. There was no association between birth weight and total trihalomethane exposure during pregnancy (&bgr; = 2.2 g in birth weight per 10 &mgr;g/L of trihalomethane, 95% confidence interval = 3.3, 7.6). Birth weight was not associated with exposure through different routes or with specific trihalomethane species. Exposure to trihalomethanes was not associated with low birth weight (odds ratio [OR] per 10 &mgr;g/L = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.95, 1.10), small-for-gestational age (OR = 0.99, 0.94, 1.03) and preterm births (OR = 0.98, 0.9, 1.05). We found no gene–environment interactions for mother or child polymorphisms in relation to preterm birth or small-for-gestational age. Conclusions: In this large European study, we found no association between birth outcomes and trihalomethane exposures during pregnancy in the total population or in potentially genetically susceptible subgroups. (See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B104.)

CAER Authors

Avatar Image for John Wright

Prof. John Wright

Bradford Institute for Health Research - Chief Investigator Born in Bradford

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